Dataguard配置Step by Step

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1.主节点备份并生成备用数据库控制文件
设置主节点为force Logging模式(为了双向切换,建议备用节点也设置为force logging模式)

ALTER DATABASE FORCE LOGGING;

设置主节点为归档模式
登陆主节点,进行数据库备份,并生成备用数据库控制文件

Last login: Mon Aug 9 16:46:47 2004 from 172.16.32.65 [root@standby root]# su – oracle
[oracle@standby oracle]$ sqlplus “/ as sysdba”
SQL*Plus: Release 9.2.0.4.0 – Production on Mon Aug 16 10:16:18 2004Copyright (c) 1982, 2002, Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.

Connected to an idle instance.

SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 135337420 bytes
Fixed Size 452044 bytes
Variable Size 109051904 bytes
Database Buffers 25165824 bytes
Redo Buffers 667648 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.

SQL> select name from v$datafile;

NAME
————————————————————
/opt/oracle/oradata/primary/system01.dbf
/opt/oracle/oradata/primary/undotbs01.dbf
/opt/oracle/oradata/primary/users01.dbf
SQL> shutdown immediate
Database closed.
Database dismounted.
ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL> exit
Disconnected from Oracle9i Enterprise Edition Release 9.2.0.4.0 – Production
With the Partitioning option
JServer Release 9.2.0.4.0 – Production
[oracle@standby oracle]$ ls
admin dictionary.ora jre oradata oraInventory oui product soft

[oracle@standby oracle]$ tar -cvf oradata.tar oradata
oradata/
oradata/primary/
oradata/primary/archive/
oradata/primary/control01.ctl
oradata/primary/control02.ctl
oradata/primary/control03.ctl
oradata/primary/redo01.log
oradata/primary/redo02.log
oradata/primary/redo03.log
oradata/primary/system01.dbf
oradata/primary/undotbs01.dbf
oradata/primary/temp01.dbf
oradata/primary/users01.dbf

[oracle@standby oracle]$ ls -l *.tar
-rw-r–r– 1 oracle dba 576512000 Aug 16 10:22 oradata.tar
[oracle@standby oracle]$ id
uid=800(oracle) gid=800(dba) groups=800(dba)
[oracle@standby oracle]$ hostname
standby
[oracle@standby oracle]$ sqlplus “/ as sysdba”

SQL*Plus: Release 9.2.0.4.0 – Production on Mon Aug 16 10:27:54 2004

Copyright (c) 1982, 2002, Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.

Connected to an idle instance.

SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 135337420 bytes
Fixed Size 452044 bytes
Variable Size 109051904 bytes
Database Buffers 25165824 bytes
Redo Buffers 667648 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.
SQL> archive log list;
Database log mode Archive Mode
Automatic archival Enabled
Archive destination /opt/oracle/oradata/primary/archive
Oldest online log sequence 88
Next log sequence to archive 90
Current log sequence 90
SQL> alter database create standby controlfile as ‘/opt/oracle/stdcotrl.ctl’;

Database altered.

SQL> !
ls[oracle@standby oracle]$ ls
admin dictionary.ora jre oradata oradata.tar oraInventory oui product soft stdcotrl.ctl

2.从主节点创建pfile文件

SQL> create pfile from spfile;
File created.SQL> !

[oracle@standby oracle]$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/dbs
[oracle@standby dbs]$ ls
initdw.ora init.ora initprimary.ora lkPRIMARY orapwprimary spfileprimary.ora sqlnet.log

3.登陆备用节点,ftp获得数据库文件、备用控制文件及参数文件

Last login: Mon Aug 16 08:47:58 2004 from 172.16.32.65
[root@eygle root]# su – oracle
[oracle@eygle oracle]$ ls
admin doc jre oradata oraInventory oui product
[oracle@eygle oracle]$ df -k
Filesystem 1K-blocks Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda1 5154852 3360600 1532396 69% /
/dev/sda7 101089 25744 70126 27% /home
/dev/sda5 4127076 2686152 1231280 69% /opt
none 515296 0 515296 0% /dev/shm
/dev/sda2 4127108 2218172 1699288 57% /usr
/dev/sda6 2063504 107744 1850940 6% /var
[oracle@eygle oracle]$ ftp 172.16.33.58
Connected to 172.16.33.58 (172.16.33.58).
220 (vsFTPd 1.2.0)
Name (172.16.33.58:root): oracle
331 Please specify the password.
Password:
230 Login successful.
ftp> ls
227 Entering Passive Mode (172,16,33,58,222,252)
150 Here comes the directory listing.
drwxr-xr-x 3 800 800 4096 Jun 30 07:02 admin
-rw-r–r– 1 800 800 5422222 Jul 13 11:58 dictionary.ora
-rw-r–r– 1 800 800 1165 Aug 16 02:51 initprimary.ora
drwxrwxr-x 4 800 800 4096 Jun 30 06:29 jre
drwxrwxr-x 12 800 800 4096 Jun 30 06:44 oraInventory
drwxr-xr-x 3 800 800 4096 Jul 01 06:15 oradata
-rw-r–r– 1 800 800 576512000 Aug 16 02:22 oradata.tar
drwxrwxr-x 6 800 800 4096 Jun 30 06:29 oui
drwxr-xr-x 3 800 800 4096 Jun 30 05:18 product
drwxr-xr-x 6 800 800 4096 Jun 30 04:24 soft
-rw-r—– 1 800 800 1662976 Aug 16 02:37 stdcotrl.ctl
226 Directory send OK.
ftp> bin
200 Switching to Binary mode.
ftp> mget oradata.tar
mget oradata.tar? y
227 Entering Passive Mode (172,16,33,58,238,132)
150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for oradata.tar (576512000 bytes).
226 File send OK.
576512000 bytes received in 49.2 secs (1.1e+04 Kbytes/sec)
ftp> mget *.ctl
mget stdcotrl.ctl? y
227 Entering Passive Mode (172,16,33,58,73,35)
150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for stdcotrl.ctl (1662976 bytes).
226 File send OK.
1662976 bytes received in 0.14 secs (1.2e+04 Kbytes/sec)
ftp> mget initprimary.ora
mget initprimary.ora? y
227 Entering Passive Mode (172,16,33,58,194,239)
150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for initprimary.ora (1165 bytes).
226 File send OK.
1165 bytes received in 0.000325 secs (3.5e+03 Kbytes/sec)
ftp> bye
221 Goodbye.[oracle@eygle oracle]$ ls
admin doc initprimary.ora jre oradata oradata.tar oraInventory oui product stdcotrl.ctl
[oracle@eygle oracle]$ mv initprimary.ora $ORACLE_HOME/dbs
[oracle@eygle oracle]$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/dbs
[oracle@eygle dbs]$ ls
a.sql initdw.ora init.ora initprimary.ora initrac1.ora initrac2.ora initrac.ora orapw
orapwrac1 orapwrac2 spfilerac.ora

解包数据文件

[oracle@eygle oracle]$ ls
admin doc jre oradata oradata.tar oraInventory oui product stdcotrl.ctl
[oracle@eygle oracle]$ tar -xvf oradata.tar
oradata/
oradata/primary/
oradata/primary/archive/
oradata/primary/control01.ctl
oradata/primary/control02.ctl
oradata/primary/control03.ctl
oradata/primary/redo01.log
oradata/primary/redo02.log
oradata/primary/redo03.log
oradata/primary/system01.dbf
oradata/primary/undotbs01.dbf
oradata/primary/temp01.dbf
oradata/primary/users01.dbf

修改initprimary.ora文件
修改控制文件名称及路径(如果和原配置不同),增加几个参数,修改后如下:

[oracle@eygle dbs]$ cat initprimary.ora
*.aq_tm_processes=1
*.background_dump_dest=’/opt/oracle/admin/primary/bdump’
*.compatible=’9.2.0.0.0′
*.control_files=’/opt/oracle/oradata/primary/stdcotrl.ctl’
*.core_dump_dest=’/opt/oracle/admin/primary/cdump’

*.log_archive_dest_1=’LOCATION=/opt/oracle/oradata/primary/archive’
*.log_archive_dest_2=” *.log_archive_format=’%t_%s.dbf’
*.log_archive_start=true

*.user_dump_dest=’/opt/oracle/admin/primary/udump’
*.utl_file_dir=’/opt/oracle’
*.standby_archive_dest=’/opt/oracle/oradata/primary/stdarch’
*.fal_server=’PRIMARY’
*.fal_client=’STANDBY’
*.standby_file_management=’AUTO’

创建必要的目录

[oracle@eygle oracle]$ cd $ORACLE_BASE/admin
[oracle@eygle admin]$ mkdir primary
[oracle@eygle admin]$ ls
primary rac
[oracle@eygle admin]$ cd primary/
[oracle@eygle primary]$ ls
[oracle@eygle primary]$ mkdir bdump cdump udump

4.配置主节点监听器及tnsnames.ora文件
配置后如下:

[oracle@standby oracle]$ cd /opt/oracle/product/9.2.0/network/admin/
[oracle@standby admin]$ cat listener.ora
# LISTENER.ORA Network Configuration File: /opt/oracle/product/9.2.0/network/admin/listener.ora
# Generated by Oracle configuration tools.
LISTENER =
(DESCRIPTION_LIST =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS_LIST =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = IPC)(KEY = EXTPROC))
)
(ADDRESS_LIST =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = standby)(PORT = 1521))
)
)
)

SID_LIST_LISTENER =
(SID_LIST =
(SID_DESC =
(SID_NAME = PLSExtProc)
(ORACLE_HOME = /opt/oracle/product/9.2.0)
(PROGRAM = extproc)
)
(SID_DESC =
(GLOBAL_DBNAME = primary)
(ORACLE_HOME = /opt/oracle/product/9.2.0)
(SID_NAME = primary)
)
)

[oracle@standby admin]$ cat tnsnames.ora
# TNSNAMES.ORA Network Configuration File: /opt/oracle/product/9.2.0/network/admin/tnsnames.ora
# Generated by Oracle configuration tools.

STANDBY =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS_LIST =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 172.16.33.46)(PORT = 1521))
)
(CONNECT_DATA =
(SERVER = DEDICATED)
(SERVICE_NAME = primary)
)
)
PRIMARY =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS_LIST =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 172.16.33.58)(PORT = 1521))
)
(CONNECT_DATA =
(SERVER = DEDICATED)
(SERVICE_NAME = primary)
)
)

[oracle@standby admin]$ lsnrctl start

LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 9.2.0.4.0 – Production on 16-AUG-2004 10:46:31

Copyright (c) 1991, 2002, Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.

Starting /opt/oracle/product/9.2.0/bin/tnslsnr: please wait…

TNSLSNR for Linux: Version 9.2.0.4.0 – Production
System parameter file is /opt/oracle/product/9.2.0/network/admin/listener.ora
Log messages written to /opt/oracle/product/9.2.0/network/log/listener.log
Listening on: (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=EXTPROC)))
Listening on: (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=standby)(PORT=1521)))

Connecting to (DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=IPC)(KEY=EXTPROC)))
STATUS of the LISTENER
————————
Alias LISTENER
Version TNSLSNR for Linux: Version 9.2.0.4.0 – Production
Start Date 16-AUG-2004 10:46:31
Uptime 0 days 0 hr. 0 min. 0 sec
Trace Level off
Security OFF
SNMP OFF
Listener Parameter File /opt/oracle/product/9.2.0/network/admin/listener.ora
Listener Log File /opt/oracle/product/9.2.0/network/log/listener.log
Listening Endpoints Summary…
(DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=ipc)(KEY=EXTPROC)))
(DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)(HOST=standby)(PORT=1521)))
Services Summary…
Service “PLSExtProc” has 1 instance(s).
Instance “PLSExtProc”, status UNKNOWN, has 1 handler(s) for this service…
Service “primary” has 1 instance(s).
Instance “primary”, status UNKNOWN, has 1 handler(s) for this service…
The command completed successfully

5.配置备用数据库监听器及tnsnames.ora文件
配置后文件如下:

[oracle@eygle admin]$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin
[oracle@eygle admin]$ cat listener.ora
# LISTENER.ORA Network Configuration File: /opt/oracle/product/9.2.0/network/admin/listener.ora
# Generated by Oracle configuration tools.
LISTENER =
(DESCRIPTION_LIST =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS_LIST =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = eygle)(PORT = 1521))
)
)
)

SID_LIST_LISTENER =
(SID_LIST =
(SID_DESC =
(GLOBAL_DBNAME = primary)
(ORACLE_HOME = /opt/oracle/product/9.2.0)
(SID_NAME = primary)
)
)
[oracle@eygle admin]$ cat tnsnames.ora
# TNSNAMES.ORA Network Configuration File: /opt/oracle/product/9.2.0/network/admin/tnsnames.ora
# Generated by Oracle configuration tools.

STANDBY =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS_LIST =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 172.16.33.46)(PORT = 1521))
)
(CONNECT_DATA =
(SERVER = DEDICATED)
(SERVICE_NAME = primary)
)
)
PRIMARY =
(DESCRIPTION =
(ADDRESS_LIST =
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 172.16.33.58)(PORT = 1521))
)
(CONNECT_DATA =
(SERVER = DEDICATED)
(SERVICE_NAME = primary)
)
)
[oracle@eygle admin]$

6.在主备节点用tnsping测试网络连通性

[oracle@standby admin]$ tnsping standby
TNS Ping Utility for Linux: Version 9.2.0.4.0 – Production on 16-AUG-2004 10:46:50
Copyright (c) 1997 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.

Used parameter files:
/opt/oracle/product/9.2.0/network/admin/sqlnet.ora
Used TNSNAMES adapter to resolve the alias
Attempting to contact (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS_LIST = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 172.16.33.46)(PORT = 1521)))
(CONNECT_DATA = (SERVER = DEDICATED) (SERVICE_NAME = primary)))
OK (10 msec)
[oracle@standby admin]$ tnsping primary

TNS Ping Utility for Linux: Version 9.2.0.4.0 – Production on 16-AUG-2004 10:46:55

Copyright (c) 1997 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.

Used parameter files:
/opt/oracle/product/9.2.0/network/admin/sqlnet.ora
Used TNSNAMES adapter to resolve the alias
Attempting to contact (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS_LIST = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 172.16.33.58)(PORT = 1521)))
(CONNECT_DATA = (SERVER = DEDICATED) (SERVICE_NAME = primary)))
OK (0 msec)

[oracle@eygle admin]$ tnsping primary

TNS Ping Utility for Linux: Version 9.2.0.4.0 – Production on 16-AUG-2004 10:10:01

Copyright (c) 1997 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.

Used parameter files:
/opt/oracle/product/9.2.0/network/admin/sqlnet.ora
Used TNSNAMES adapter to resolve the alias
Attempting to contact (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS_LIST = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 172.16.33.58)(PORT = 1521)))
(CONNECT_DATA = (SERVER = DEDICATED) (SERVICE_NAME = primary)))
OK (50 msec)
[oracle@eygle admin]$ tnsping standby

TNS Ping Utility for Linux: Version 9.2.0.4.0 – Production on 16-AUG-2004 10:10:06

Copyright (c) 1997 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.

Used parameter files:
/opt/oracle/product/9.2.0/network/admin/sqlnet.ora
Used TNSNAMES adapter to resolve the alias
Attempting to contact (DESCRIPTION = (ADDRESS_LIST = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 172.16.33.46)(PORT = 1521)))
(CONNECT_DATA = (SERVER = DEDICATED) (SERVICE_NAME = primary)))
OK (10 msec)

7.启动备用数据库

[oracle@eygle primary]$ hostname
eygle
[oracle@eygle primary]$ sqlplus “/ as sysdba”
SQL*Plus: Release 9.2.0.4.0 – Production on Mon Aug 16 11:09:40 2004
Copyright (c) 1982, 2002, Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.
Connected to an idle instance.

SQL> startup nomount;
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 135337420 bytes
Fixed Size 452044 bytes
Variable Size 109051904 bytes
Database Buffers 25165824 bytes
Redo Buffers 667648 bytes
SQL> alter database mount standby database;

Database altered.

SQL> alter database recover managed standby database disconnect from session;

Database altered.

8.在主节点设置归档路径

SQL> alter system set log_archive_dest_2=’service=standby mandatory reopen=60′;
System altered.

SQL> alter system switch logfile;

System altered.

SQL> /

System altered.

SQL>

在备用节点观察日志

[oracle@eygle bdump]$ tail -f alert_primary.log
MRP0: Background Managed Standby Recovery process started
Starting datafile 1 recovery in thread 1 sequence 90
Datafile 1: ‘/opt/oracle/oradata/primary/system01.dbf’
Starting datafile 2 recovery in thread 1 sequence 90
Datafile 2: ‘/opt/oracle/oradata/primary/undotbs01.dbf’
Starting datafile 3 recovery in thread 1 sequence 90
Datafile 3: ‘/opt/oracle/oradata/primary/users01.dbf’
Media Recovery Waiting for thread 1 seq# 90
Mon Aug 16 11:10:50 2004
Completed: alter database recover managed standby database di
Mon Aug 16 11:13:34 2004
Media Recovery Log /opt/oracle/oradata/primary/stdarch/1_90.dbf
Media Recovery Waiting for thread 1 seq# 91
Media Recovery Log /opt/oracle/oradata/primary/stdarch/1_91.dbf
Media Recovery Waiting for thread 1 seq# 92
Mon Aug 16 12:09:38 2004
Media Recovery Log /opt/oracle/oradata/primary/stdarch/1_92.dbf

9.在主节点进行同样的配置,以便切换后继续日志传递

[oracle@standby oracle]$ ls
admin dictionary.ora initprimary.ora jre oradata oradata.tar oraInventory oui product soft stdcotrl.ctl[oracle@standby oracle]$ cd oradata
[oracle@standby oradata]$ ls
primary
[oracle@standby oradata]$ cd primary/
[oracle@standby primary]$ ls
archive control02.ctl redo01.log redo03.log temp01.dbf
users01.dbfcontrol01.ctl control03.ctl redo02.log system01.dbf
undotbs01.dbf
[oracle@standby primary]$ mkdir stdarch
[oracle@standby primary]$ exit
exit

SQL> alter system set standby_archive_dest=’/opt/oracle/oradata/primary/stdarch’;

System altered.

10.停止主数据库,启用备用数据库

SQL> alter database commit to switchover to physical standby;
Database altered.SQL> shutdown immediate
ORA-01507: database not mounted
ORACLE instance shut down.

在备用模式启用主数据

SQL> startup nomount;
ORACLE instance started.
Total System Global Area 135337420 bytes
Fixed Size 452044 bytes
Variable Size 109051904 bytes
Database Buffers 25165824 bytes
Redo Buffers 667648 bytes
SQL> alter database mount standby database;
Database altered.
SQL> select name,open_mode,PROTECTION_MODE,DATABASE_ROLE from v$database;

NAME OPEN_MODE PROTECTION_MODE DATABASE_ROLE
——— ———- ——————– —————-
PRIMARY MOUNTED MAXIMUM PERFORMANCE PHYSICAL STANDBY
SQL> ALTER DATABASE RECOVER MANAGED STANDBY DATABASE DISCONNECT FROM SESSION;

Database altered.

打开备用数据库

[oracle@eygle oracle]$ sqlplus “/ as sysdba”SQL*Plus: Release 9.2.0.4.0 – Production on Mon Aug 16 12:11:11 2004

Copyright (c) 1982, 2002, Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.
Connected to:
Oracle9i Enterprise Edition Release 9.2.0.4.0 – Production
With the Partitioning, Real Application Clusters, OLAP and Oracle Data Mining options
JServer Release 9.2.0.4.0 – Production

SQL> alter database commit to switchover to primary;

Database altered.

SQL> shutdown immediate;
ORA-01507: database not mounted
ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 135337420 bytes
Fixed Size 452044 bytes
Variable Size 109051904 bytes
Database Buffers 25165824 bytes
Redo Buffers 667648 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.
SQL> alter system switch logfile;

System altered.

在主库上观察日志应用情况

[oracle@standby bdump]$ tail -f alert_primary.log
Starting datafile 2 recovery in thread 1 sequence 93
Datafile 2: ‘/opt/oracle/oradata/primary/undotbs01.dbf’
Starting datafile 3 recovery in thread 1 sequence 93
Datafile 3: ‘/opt/oracle/oradata/primary/users01.dbf’
Media Recovery Log /opt/oracle/product/9.2.0/dbs/arch1_93.dbf
Mon Aug 16 15:08:43 2004
Media Recovery Log /opt/oracle/oradata/primary/stdarch/1_94.dbf
Media Recovery Waiting for thread 1 seq# 95
Media Recovery Log /opt/oracle/oradata/primary/stdarch/1_95.dbf
Media Recovery Waiting for thread 1 seq# 96

11.进行数据修改

SQL> create table t as select * from dba_users; Table created.SQL> alter system switch logfile;

System altered.

在从库上以read only打开数据库,执行查询

SQL> select username from t;
select username from t
*
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01219: database not open: queries allowed on fixed tables/views only
SQL> ALTER DATABASE RECOVER MANAGED STANDBY DATABASE CANCEL;

Database altered.

SQL> ALTER DATABASE OPEN READ ONLY;

Database altered.

SQL> select username from t;

USERNAME
——————————
SYS
SYSTEM
DBSNMP
OUTLN
WMSYS

SQL> ALTER DATABASE RECOVER MANAGED STANDBY DATABASE DISCONNECT FROM SESSION;
Database altered.

SQL>

12.把数据库切换回到主节点

在主节点

SQL> alter database commit to switchover to physical standby;Database altered.

SQL> shutdown immediate
ORA-01507: database not mounted
statORACLE instance shut down.
SQL> startup nomount;
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 135337420 bytes
Fixed Size 452044 bytes
Variable Size 109051904 bytes
Database Buffers 25165824 bytes
Redo Buffers 667648 bytes

SQL> alter database mount standby database;

Database altered.

SQL> ALTER DATABASE RECOVER MANAGED STANDBY DATABASE DISCONNECT FROM SESSION;

Database altered.

在备用节点

SQL> alter database commit to switchover to primary;Database altered.

SQL> shutdown immediate;
ORA-01507: database not mounted
ORACLE instance shut down.
SQL> startup
ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 135337420 bytes
Fixed Size 452044 bytes
Variable Size 109051904 bytes
Database Buffers 25165824 bytes
Redo Buffers 667648 bytes
Database mounted.
Database opened.

完成自由切换

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